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The True Politician according to Max Weber

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Here is H.H. Bruun, in his book Science, Values and Politics in Max Weber’s Methodology (1972) writing of how a true politician would conduct himself according to Weber:

…[T]he precondition which Weber establishes for action in conformity with the ethic of politics is the fundamental willingness to let oneself be guided in certain cases by the value axioms of other spheres than the political one. Only those who can have “Beruf zur Politik” who do not only have this “Beruf”, who in particular situations are able and willing to submit to other value systems.

This precondition again implies that the political ethic as defined by Weber does not only demand knowledge of the laws and regularities of the political sphere; in other words, the “true” politician must not only be aware of the teleological system
surrounding his political goal, but also of the axiological (value or ethical system) one.

But…

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Written by Romel

March 8, 2017 at 3:41 pm

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Republic’s Interregnum: Legal Lacunae in the State of Exception

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Going over Republic v. Sandiganbayan’s ponencia by J. Carpio in class last night, I was struck by the abnormal situation it had to cope with and the way in which the Court dealt with it. For one, we have to realize that the 1987 Charter is a constitution that expressly carves out a state of exception for a series of acts committed by the revolutionary government — through Jovito Salonga no less! –in the constitutional interregnum.

The interregnum was our Schmittian moment in a deeply paradoxical way: we ousted the martial law regime but resorted to some of its tactics to make sure the political gains already won will not be lost again. Indeed, in the 1987 Charter, we have a constitution that expressly sanctions unconstitutional acts committed in the space of the interregnum s when there was no operative constitution!

Section 26, Article XVIII,  states:

SECTION 26. The authority…

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Written by Romel

March 3, 2017 at 5:36 am

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Kazimierz Brandys Redux, No. 1

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Between a thinking believing and a believing thinking…

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0327-06-brandys-kazimierz-1982I’ve taken recently to re-reading the journals of the late Polish dissident writer Kazimierz Brandys (A Warsaw Diary, 1978-1981). 

An entry from October 1978, p. 11-12:

The contemporary world does not belong to the Age of Reason; it is convulsed by a desire for faith. As a layman living outside the church, my epoch ages me. I feel an anachronism in it, sometimes alien, superfluous. Especially since I usually felt distaste for the type of person and the kind of life that express themselves through religion. I was a student when I halted in front of the steps of a rather old temple, asking myself, Should I turn back or enter? I entered. For me socialism was not a confession of dogmatic faith; I went in because it was battling against a barbaric church that was hostile to me — fascism. Socialism’s nineteenth-century past had earned my…

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Written by Romel

February 5, 2017 at 6:26 pm

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Aquinas on Tyrants and Tyrannicide

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periander_vat2Aquinas’ De regno ad regem Cypiri (Address to the King of Cyprus, circa 13th C.) : interesting to read this short work written by Thomas Aquinas, especially the section on tyrants and tyrannicide, which I find to be a fertile source for contemporary political thought and discussion. A special note to make is that for Aquinas, a monarchy is the best political arrangement, hence the discussion is centered on the king.

Aquinas is reluctant to endorse private ventures to kill a tyrant; at the most, he appears to allow an uprising led by public authority as a last resort (I suppose, to give it a cloak of legality). Calvin follows this line, as do the Dutch Calvinists (for example, getting William of Orange to lead against Spanish tyranny), but I am not sure if Calvin et al acknowledge Aquinas as their source for their position.

Too, one thinks of…

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Written by Romel

November 28, 2016 at 7:36 am

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Skillen on Newbigin (and the Benedict Option)

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Internet chatter on the Benedict Option – conceived as creating new “monastic communities” plodding on as a counter-cultural force in a post-secular society – is rife these days. There is a palpable sense that given recent governmental moves in Western societies that severely restrict religious freedom in general and Orthodox Christianity in particular, the only option is to opt out of the public sphere and build new communities where Christian virtues may be freely practiced. Read here here, here and here. In this blog, it was discussed here.

But here’s why the Benedict Option may be missing the point about what it means to have effective Christian witness even under such challenging times:

Dr. James Skillen, writing in response to Bishop Lesslie Newbigin’s view that to develop a Christian society, “lay men and women” need to develop a “lay theology” for various fields of public life, says thus:

Then the apostle Paul writes to various churches and challenges them to live wholly in Christ, he frequently addresses believers in their capacities as husbands and wives, parents and children, employers and employees, and citizens (or subjects) in the political realm. But in those capacities Paul does not address them as lay men and women, implying that their identity in those roles is as ecclesiastical nonprofessionals. A “husband” is not a church lay person needing a theology for being a husband; he is a member of the body of Christ who has, among many different Christian responsibilities, that of being a husband. In this capacity, it is not as a church lay person that he needs a theology for loving his wife, but rather that he needs to understand God’s will for his role in marriage.

Precisely here, it seems to me, we should think not of applying some ecclesiastical truths to non-ecclesiastical areas of life, but rather, of taking seriously the way the gospel restores and illumines the meaning of God’s good creation. John’s gospel, Paul’s letter to the Colossians, and the letter to the Hebrews, for example, all begin by stating that the incarnate Son of God is the one in whom, for whom, and through whom all things were created. The creation is revelatory of God and connected to the Son of God prior to the incarnation and the organizing of the church. The good news of the Jesus Christ is, among other things, that creation has been recovered and is being restored so that it will finally come to fulfillment in the City of God.

The body of Christ is a communion of reborn creatures – of the renewed image of God. Marriage, family life, farming, commerce, music, civic responsibility, and everything else in creation have genuine revelatory meaning that is disclosed in the exercise of human responsibility in each area of life. In each of these capacities the Christian person’s identity is not that of a lay Church person but that of family member, farmer, trader, musician, or whatever. The exercise of proper and righteous responsibility in contrast to misdirected responsibility in each of these areas will come as a result of the renewal of life in Christ. Consequently, the words clay persons should be a designation applied to Church members who do not hold ecclesiastical office, and should not be used to describe the roles people have in non-ecclesiastical areas of life.

The development of a Christian society, I am suggesting, comes not from a theology for Church lay persons but from obedience of the whole body of Christ in all areas of creaturely life where its members bear responsibility as they learn to live completely unto Christ. Of course the whole creation holds together in Christ, so the meaning of marital love, of economic stewardship, of public Justice, of medical healing, and of so much more hangs together in one meaningful creation, which has been distorted by sin but Judged and redeemed in Christ. The redeeming work of Christ redirects hearts and lives in all areas of life. Along with sound Christian theology, then, there should emerge sound Christian philosophy, obedient Christian political practice, healing Christian medical practice, and so forth. The adjective “Christian” in each instance refers not to theology as something added to an otherwise indistinguishable mode of worldly life, but indicates the genuine redirection, recovery, renewal of life among those led by faith in Christ. The Christian “way of life” should, in other words, appear different from the secularist way of life, the Muslim way of life, and so forth.

What will often be necessary as Christians seek to fulfill their earthly responsibilities in all areas of life are Christian organizations of parents, of farmers, of laborers, of academics, of citizens, and so forth. The purpose of such organizing should not be so Christians can isolate themselves or try to create a perfect community on the edge of civilization, but rather to develop consistent Christian practices in each area of life as they live side by side with people whose ways of life are directed by faith in other gods. The body of Christ is the people of God, lifting up all of creation’s treasures in every realm of existence in praise to God, looking and pointing ahead to the Christian society that will finally be revealed in its fullness when the Lord returns[emphasis supplied].[1]

What Skillen is saying here is that Christians are called to witness to the world in the context of their many differentiated responsibilities: as husbands and wives, as professionals in various fields, as members of a church, as members of a Christian NGO, as citizens of a particular country, as members of a Christian labor union or a political party. Christians take part in and help shape a creational order that Christ has renewed and is renewing – an order that is revelatory of God’s will and purposes. Thus, in the context of the redemptive work of the Gospel, the body of Christ is a communion of re-born creatures – of the renewed image of God – for whom “marriage, family life, farming, commerce, music, civic responsibility, and everything else in creation have genuine revelatory meaning that is disclosed in the exercise of human responsibility in each area of life.”

He adds:

In each of these capacities the Christian person’s identity is not that of a lay Church person but that of family member, farmer, trader, musician, or whatever. The exercise of proper and righteous responsibility in contrast to misdirected responsibility in each of these areas will come as a result of the renewal of life in Christ. Consequently, the words ‘lay persons’ should be a designation applied to Church members who do not hold ecclesiastical office, and should not be used to describe the roles people have in non-ecclesiastical areas of life.

Christians cannot live in isolation from the world if they are to give justice to their differentiated responsibilities that they exercise as part of the redemptive work of the Gospel – and such work requires faithful Christian practice and presence across their various endeavors and roles.

[1] Is there a place for Christian politics in America? notes from a lecture given by Dr. Skillen to a philosophy class at the University of the Orange Free State in South Africa (2012). The lecture is a response to the work of Bishop Leslie Newbigin, a path-breaking missiologist. I am grateful to Dr. D.F.M Strauss, at whose initiative the lecture was made, for making available the notes to me.

Written by Romel

January 12, 2016 at 3:43 am

Between the Monastic and the Transformative

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Here are excerpts from a reflection I  recently gave to a strategic planning meeting of a Christian microfinance organization where I sit as a member of the Board of Trustees:

benedict-sanctusIn a world of brokenness brought about by sin, the task of Christians who desire to serve the King in the various fields in which He had place them, is to embrace a certain realism about what they can do to transform or redeem broken structures and relationships in society.

From a biblical mandate, this means proceeding with the work from the fusion of two traditions that the Neo-Thomist philosopher Alisdaire McIyntre on the one hand, and the Reformed philosopher Nicholas Wolterstorff on the other, represent; that is, the monastic and the reformative or transformative.

Indeed, we must learn to draw from the wisdom of a wide variety of Christian resources, to see how faith communities of the past grappled with their own issues and what we can learn from them, as the Catholic theologian Werner Jeanrond would put it. The vision of the monastic is that of the Kingdom of God lived in the midst of a turbulent world: a new community of the redeemed, the preaching of judgment, service to the poor, and liturgy.

This was the otherworldly world of the monasteries, which saw tremendous growth at the turn of the first millennia, just as the Roman Empire was breaking up for good. For a long time, beginning with the reign of the Emperor Constantine, the Christians had identified Christianity with the Roman Empire. Civilization and hope and faith were in the hands of the empire. But soon, the empire was no more.

The coming of the monastic otherworldliness had a tremendous impact on society, for “it established a spiritual order of values and beliefs without which any change in the social order of the kind [the reformative impulse intended] is inconceivable.”

The monastic broke ties with the as the center of life; in the onslaught of darkness, the empire no longer stood as the symbol of what life should be, or of the ideal community where human existence can be lived meaningfully. Yet while monasticism had its strengths, it also had its weakness, especially its unhealthy stress on the afterlife and its neglect of what can be done in the present, and its emphasis on penitence and good works, which ultimately led to the rejection of the grace God made available to us in Christ.

The Protestant Reformation brought in a necessary corrective and transformative element. The Reformative vision is aided by its reflection on what creation was at the beginning, as it works towards a new creation; here it recognizes order as God-given and related to meaning, an order that humans experience at a personal level. The Reformative vision is also transformative in its recognition that “God’s order is not complete unless it is recognized…God’s meaningful order is not complete unless man rules in a way that reflects the character of God as expressed in his commandments.”

The subversive element in the work of the church is precisely that – as a sort of an advance party establishing the presence of the Kingdom in the enemy’s territory.

Some Christian thinkers argue that today, here a common ground for morality and ethics has become impossibility, what is needed is the construction of new forms of community — local forms — within which the intellectual and moral life can be sustained through the new dark ages, which are already upon us. But what should these forms of community bring with it? We must learn from each other’s spiritual traditions in building these new forms of community where the monastic element combines with the transformative.

These combined elements – the monastic and the transformative – ought to direct the work of Christian expectation with the understanding that while the subversive work of the church aims for change in society, it is not for a total one but for a radical one. We are to consider the reality of evil manifested in brokenness and to relate it to creational intents; we are also to find out how such intents may help the Christian bring redemption, no matter how limited, to the present.

Thus, the Christian should not only see the present world in the light of what is to come, but should also see the perspective of what it was meant to be from the beginning. Evil is never total; creational norms are never totally extinguished.

The Christian has no illusions about what he can do. He knows that he cannot bring the full realization of the Kingdom of God down to earth with the work of his hands. His is but an anticipation of the world to come; he recognizes the double aspect of the Christian anticipation, that is, of eternity breaking into the present yet awaiting full consummation in the future: the “already but not yet” motif of the Kingdom of God.

In that anticipation, his work must show the fine details that befit the service due a Heavenly King to whom he is personally related. Yet Kingdom work, as we all know, is not at all glamorous. In fact, most of the time, it is work full of drudgery.

Most of the time, we will labor under abject conditions, away from the glare of media; more often than not, our task will be a thank-less one, a mere echo lost in the dark corners of forgotten deeds; and sometimes, we will feel that our life is bone-dry, empty of the excitement that always seems to grip the very depths of the lives of others. We will begin to ask ourselves why is it that it is always the others who seem to bask in the rapture of high spiritual experience. We will long for the ecstasy of God’s presence but fail to find it.

Even poets suffer this impatient intransigence for the sublime, for that “weight of glory,” as C.S. Lewis put it in a famous sermon of his. “One can even imagine a poet who experiences the sublime and demand a high style to express it,” writes the Polish poet Adam Zagajewski in Another Beauty, “but precisely because this is a rare event that requires patient waiting, in daily life he becomes one of poetry’s ironic prosecutors.”

Alas, there is the “painful world” they have to deal with, where the craft of that finely-tuned phrase is a daily and frustrating struggle. It doesn’t help that they must live through the commonplace, all the while longing for the dry bones to quicken and then to die, and then to live again, with a sensitivity to the tiniest ripple of emotions in the space of the personal: “To wake and fall asleep, drowse off and waken, to pass through seasons of doubt, melancholy dark as lead, indifference, boredom, and then the spells of vitality, clarity, hard and happy work, contentment, gaiety, to remember and forget and recollect again, that an eternal fire burns beside us, a God with an unknown name, whom we will never reach.”

It is the painful world we will have to deal with, where sometimes, even the God we serve will seem all too unknown to us.

After all, we’ve been cast out of Eden – what did we expect? Indeed, how do we deal with it? Lest we forget our vocation is a ministry of the greatest “glad tidings”; As people of faith, we must learn “to make sense of what takes place” from that proclamation of the Good News that Jesus is Lord, and that He is Lord of “what takes place” in the present time, as well as of the future.

In his exegesis of Chapter 13 of the Book of Romans, the German New Testament scholar Ernest Kasseman talks of the hidden-ness of Christ. He disputes with Karl Barth’s interpretation of the same text, which proceeds from the view of Christ as Lord of all life. He does not think that a Christological view is appropriate to explain the engagement of the church with the world. In that he is very Lutheran and I do not share Kasseman’s view.Calvin

He is really being inconsistent because what he says in his works, he contradicts with his own practice. We know how he himself was put to prison by the Nazis for calling Hitler an anti-Christ and for working for the mine workers in his parish. But I appropriate his term the hidden-ness of Christ. There is something hidden in the Kingdom of God and in the work of Christ. Think of his birth – in the book of Luke, chapter 2, we read that Joseph and Mary were called back by a census made under the auspices of Augustus Caesar to Bethlehem.

The gospel writer’s reference to Roman authorities places this event in a real place and a real time. But It also reminds us that the great world empire was able to pull people around as it wanted. It was the great power. And yet, behind the scenes, it was only doing what God wanted in the first place.

The census called by a pagan emperor brought the First Family to Bethlehem, in fulfillment of a prophecy made a long, long time ago! Then, at Palm Sunday, we see Jesus riding a donkey; for the world that does not know him, this is an absurdity. Someone who claims to be a King, a messiah, and he can’t even get for himself a proper war-horse? For the Jews of Jesus day, Jesus could have been the Messiah but he didn’t turn out the way they expected. The truth is, the Kingdom of God advances without the world noticing it.

The triumphal entry was a triumph because it marked the fulfillment of the prophecy about Jesus, though the people did not see it that way, and yes, even if his very own disciples did not fully realize what it the fuss in Jerusalem that day was all about. This should be great comfort for us who labor in situations that for most people, are hopeless.

We participate in the “creative process” that is the transformation of people’s lives, and of people’s communities, with the life-giving power of the Spirit. It is a work in the present, with eternal consequences. But what takes place is an offering to Him by whom our very own lives have a purpose greater than ourselves.

His story becomes our story; this literature of faith is woven into the narrative of our individual lives so that ours becomes a demonstration of the transforming power of the greatest story ever told – our greatest impulse for truth-telling. In all this, we must learn the value of sacrifice as its own blessing and reward; ours becomes a sacrificial witness to the truth of the Gospel, because we know that everything else is rubbish compared to glory he has chosen to reveal to us whom he calls by name;

When we gather as a community to enact our baptism in Christ through faith, we confront the world with a different set of values; this set of values was “foolishness” to the Greeks of Paul’s day –indeed, for the intellectuals of his day, a crucified God who now calls his followers to bear their own crosses was incomprehensible; it is the same today.

Ours is a world that mocks the path of holiness; it prefers the pursuit of pleasure with wild abandon; in other words, the glorification of the self and all its excesses, rather than a life lived in service, self-discipline and humility. It prefers self-interest rather than the interest of others. It is a world dazzled by fame, success, comfort, wealth.

The path of Christ, meanwhile, calls us to a discipleship of restraint, simplicity, humility and poverty of spirit. For we are called, to borrow from that nihilist in Nietzsche, to a long obedience in the same direction. It is an impossible message, but only if we depend on our own wisdom and strength. We must take to heart the promise that to ours belong not the spirit of timidity but of power when we proclaim the Gospel of Christ.

Karl Barth once said that it is not enough to be orthodox in our doctrine; he meant to say that we can have all the correct doctrines there is about God, but if we do not witness to the truth of these doctrines through the way we live as members of the body of Christ – indeed, as a church – our doctrines are of no moment.

The correctness of our doctrines we affirm by our practices as a community of faith. Indeed, with St. Francis of Assisi, we can only intone: “I have been all things unholy. If God can work through me, he can work through anyone.” In the end, the only diminution we cling on to is the diminution of the self, so that He who is the “Stronger One” becomes preeminent in our lives, and in our communal life.

Written by Romel

October 19, 2015 at 3:16 am

On philosophy as a photograph of nature

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havana cigarOne of the things I appreciate about reformational philosophy is the rightful place it gives to our ordinary, naïve experience. Naïve experience does not mean in a pejorative sense,  the gullibility of our experience of the everyday, but rather, it refers to the way in which human beings experience things in their seamless totality: Herman Dooyeweerd’s favorite box of Havana cigars, in ordinary experience, is a box of Havana cigars, in the concreteness of reality. But the moment we confront it with theoretical thought, we start abstracting from it certain of its various sides: the aesthetics, the legal, the economic, the social, the historical, and so on. Naïve experience is not dismissed, but properly accounted for, as part of the the task of theorizing about reality.

Thus, in his first major work, Encyclopedia of the Science of Law, he criticizes what Richard Rorty would call the view of…

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Written by Romel

March 10, 2015 at 6:44 am

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